Program of Spring 2010 Poster Presentations
1. Hall, Dillion. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. Language Use, Subcultures, and the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Language is an integral part of human culture and the way people use language may determine how people see the world. Ultimately the question of whether language can change culture and if language alone can alter the way people see reality is still being studied. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis claims that language can do both of these things, to some degree. The purpose of this project is to test the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis by studying specific subcultures and looking for how the use of language in those subcultures may alter previously held beliefs and behaviors. The challenge presented to any linguistics researcher is that one must show that language can be the catalyst for culture change. This project will use other researchers’ results and gather information through surveys and interviews to show that language can ultimately have an effect on the way people interact with the world and each other.
2. Stai, Brock. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman.Quantitative microwear on Mircroblades from Block F Mountaineer
The purpose of this paper is to explore quantitative analysis of microblades from the Mountaineer site 5GN2477 to determine if they were used as tools. Examining the edges of the flakes under the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), the author was able to measure features on the flake’s edge to the micrometer (µm) . With the utilization of SEM and previous research on determining microwear, such as Keeley et al.,1977, Toll, 1978, Odell et al.,1980, Evans et al.,2008, the author will identify potentially used edges and focus on measuring those feature’s length and width. Determining if these microblades were used for a utilitarian purpose will provide further data into the past life ways that existed in Block F as related to tool use, material type, and tool design. This study will further shed light on what has been interpreted as a domestic structure (Stiger; 2006).
3. Landreth, Brittany. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink, Gregg Haase. Medicine: When is it alternative?
The purpose of this paper is to gain a comprehensive understanding of the alternative and traditional medicines used in our local area. It will also serve as a general contrast and comparison to the use of Western medicine. This paper also intends to inform the public about the existence and utilization of practices outside mainstream medicine. In order to accomplish this, two types of resources will be used. The first will be academic articles, which will provide factual information pertaining to alternative and traditional medicines. The second resource will be provided by interviews conducted with actual practitioners of non-Western medicine. The information gathered for this paper will reveal another option other than Western medicine, and educate people about the merits and validity of traditional and alternative medicines. This discussion also has implications for understanding medical pluralism, in which people combine cures from distinct traditions into one practice.
4. Murill, Joshua. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. Medical Decision Making Among Residents of Gunnison, Colorado
This project will offer information relating to medical decision-making. Based on survey information, I will determine if there are any correlations between age or gender and frequency of debilitating medical issues along with the course of action taken. Individuals will complete a written survey that will gather data on age, gender, as well as the frequency, kind, and treatment of medical conditions. Medical issues are defined as anything that interferes with an individual’s routine activities. Survey-takers will report medical problems either daily, weekly, monthly, or less frequently. Next, they will report the course of action taken: over the counter medicine, prescription medicine/doctor visit, or alternative medicine. Though this study will not be able to quantify the actual suffering and treatment of individuals, it will offer insight into decision-making and perceived suffering.
5. Ball, Jillian. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Ranching Culture: Plains to High Country
Ranching in the west has been a key economic enterprise for well over a hundred years. The practice began on the plains and eventually made its way into the high country. My project explores ranching culture in two diverse areas of Colorado and considers its implications for the future of ranching. The project concentrates on ranching practices, the history of land use, and the major issues ranches on the plains and in the mountains will face in the future. Through the use of emic and etic perspectives, I explore the differences and similarities in ranching culture of the two sites. I argue that ranching is an evolving culture that is working to find its niche in a changing world. Ranching will continue to be practiced throughout the west, but the same guidelines that once governed the ranching barons of the 19th and 20th centuries will be forever changed.
6. Smith, Collin. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman. Folsom Aged bone needle analysis
The scanning electron microscope analysis of bone needle use wear through the use of a scanning electron microscope, images of fine
detail in use wear can be captured. The scanning electron microscope has the
ability use an electron beam to magnify images at a power of up to 200,000 xs.
The magnification power of the scanning electron microscope makes it a great
diagnostic tool for use wear analysis on artifacts. The scanning electron
microscope has much potential to enable identification of tools and their use
wear pattern. Due to the fact that only few have access to scanning electron
microscopes, bone needle use wear studies are one of the many studies that are
unexplored. In this experiment, three manufactured bone needles will be
analyzed using the scanning electron microscope at Western State College. . The
objective is to determine whether or not the scanning electron microscope is
efficient at diagnosing use wear pattern on tools like bone needles.
7. Knopf, Clifton. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. An Open Door Towards Kindness?
In this poster I intend to display the cultural etiquette of
opening doors for others at Western State College. Through research and
interviews, as well as my own expectations, I have set the parameters for a
study in observing the occurrence, gender relations, and responses to opening
doors for others. From the data collected, I compare the results with the
interviews and data collected at other settings outside of the campus, to
determine if opening doors for others at Western State College is a unique
phenomenon or whether it reflects the mainstream etiquette of our society. I
believe that an individualistic mindset has overcome the courtesy of holding
open a door for someone else, and that the concept of “chivalry” has been
redefined at the college setting. This study has implications for changing
social customs and individual responses to expected “etiquette.”
8.Crum, Alyssa. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. Perceptions Regarding Problems and their Solutions
this particular culture, people have a difficult time finding solutions to
problems and puzzles, and they do not uniformly enjoy engaging in the mental
exercise. This seems particularly due to time constraints or perceived limited
intelligence. This poster will explore the relationship between people and
problem solving, with an emphasis upon the idea that difficulty and challenge pose an inconvenience
upon individuals who are exposed to them. I suggest that patterns of thought
and ideas play a role in whether or not an individual will excel at the puzzle
presented to them, or if they will find the problem is not recognizable, and
therefore incomprehensible. This implies the tendency of humans to fall into
habitual strategies and be unwilling to adapt to a problem that has not been
9. Stai, Brock. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. Traditional Techniques of Agriculture in the Highlands of the Gunnison Basin
The purpose of this poster presentation is to describe and evaluate methods of agriculture utilized by the Ancestral Puebloan People in the American Southwest. By utilizing their methods to bring agriculture to an experimental crop field in the Gunnison Highlands region, bordering Fossil Ridge Wilderness Area, I will demonstrate the on-the-ground effectiveness of these techniques. A check dam utilizing natural resources such as rock and wood has been designed. The gravity-fed irrigation system design will utilize drip lines and low pressure filters, as well as battery operated timed valves, to provide the crops with supplemental moisture. The benefits of this experiment are to bring supervision free agriculture to a region that currently doesn’t have the ability, therefore providing an economic solution to expensive natural food, as well as demonstrate the effectiveness of traditional agricultural techniques.
10. Rea, Mandy. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. Student Perceptions of the Evolution-Creationism Continuum at Western State College
Evolution is the cornerstone of biological theory; yet it remains a controversial topic within the United States. Many Americans perceive a dichotomy between evolution and creationism, causing tension and affecting student learning. Previous studies conducted at Western State College found that many students believed in both evolution and creationism. These studies showed a need for further research into “the nature of individual beliefs and perceptions, and how people reconcile a belief in science with a belief in creationism” (Sikkink 2009). This study is designed to offer supplemental, qualitative data about the nature of these belief systems. Interviews were conducted among students of different ages, majors and religious backgrounds, to determine the range and depth of understanding and belief. Studies suggest that instructors who know the range of student beliefs relative to the evolution-creationism continuum better understand the students’ abilities and motivations for learning about evolution, biology and the nature of science in general.
11. Cahill, Erin. Anthropology, Drs. Sikkink & Stiger, and Casey Dukeman. Intellectual Genealogy: tracing my education
Intellectual genealogy is the idea that each anthropologist has been taught by another anthropologist, who in turn has learned from their teachers, and so on. While I may not have had direct instruction from the founding luminaries of anthropology, their styles of observations, methods for recording data, and even their approaches to studying cultures have been passed down through the years by their students to culminate in the education I am receiving at Western State College of Colorado, and so I am learning indirectly from the masters. In the years I have been an anthropology student, I have had three instructors: Dr. Mark Stiger, Dr. Lynn Sikkink, and Casey Dukeman, through whom I can trace my intellectual genealogy. This poster will illustrate my intellectual genealogy, as traced through my professors at Western State, which has implications for understanding the interconnectedness of influences represented by any one student of anthropology.
12. Ross, Nick. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink, Casey Dukeman. Professional and Amateur Archaeology Meet: Analysis of a Local Lithic Collection
Using a local collection of lithic artifacts, this paper considers its use to contemporary archaeology. I consider the hobby of collecting cultural artifacts and how it may be useful in providing information and preserving data. The project will show that there is valuable information that can be gained when professional and amateur archaeologists work together and trust each other. Professional archaeologists can explain how information is lost when artifacts are taken and amateurs can show professional archaeologists where new sites are that can be valuable to the archaeological record. This will be achieved through an interview with at least one collecter, and an analysis of the features of a collection. Hopefully this project will help bridge the gap between the two groups and help them come to an understanding of what the other is trying to accomplish.
13. Boyd, Joshua. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink, Mark Stiger, Casey Dukeman. Applying Experimental Lithic Endscraper Reductions to the Archaeological Record
In this poster I explore the morphological traits of experimental end scrapers and how these might influence perceptions of artifactual remnants on archaeological sites. In this exploration, I illustrate the continuum of the end scraper reduction sequence with quantitative data. Using metrics to demonstrate this continuum, I argue that archaeologists’ assumptions may be misleading in identification of still useable end scrapers versus worn out end scrapers and their morphological attributes in the archaeological record. In order to better understand end scraper use, I manufactured three end scrapers and used them. After re-sharpening events, metrics for maximum length and end bit angles were recorded. This data is analyzed and presented to demonstrate the end scraper reduction continuum. This has implications for improved interpretation of the archaeological record, especially with regards to previous theories that deal with organization of technology and stone tool discard behavior.
14. Schumann, Stephanie, Mariana Faleiros, Giovanni Bowers, Adam Kloos, Rachel Weakland. Biology, Sarah Cerra. Do Plant Pot Sizes Affect the Growth of Brassica Rapa Plants
Brassica rapa is important for scientific research due to its short life cycle. It is important to know how to grow the tallest and widest plants for better results in other studies. This experiment was designed to determine if progressing plant pot sizes with increasing amounts of soil affects the plant height. We hypothesized the plants would grow taller and wider in more soil. We had a variety of materials consisting of three different plant pot sizes, four containing 27.26 grams, four 34.25 grams, four 81.08 grams. In these pots Brassica rapa plants were cultivated over a three-week period. After results were gathered they were graphed and analyzed with an ANOVA test. The hypothesis was rejected because after running the ANOVA test our p-value for the height of the plants was 0.2659 and for the width was 0.49512 were both greater than 0.05.
15. Fuselier, Adams, Ross McGee, Stuart Magno, Jeremy Dole. Biology, Sarah Cerra. The Effect on Watering Brassica Plants.
Water is important to Brassica for photosynthesis. We predicted the overwatered Brassica plants will grow at a more accelerated rate while the underwatered Brassica plants will not appear healthy, and wilting may occur. If to little water is given to Brassica, they will not develop properly and will be susceptible to pests while too much water makes soil too moist for Brassica causing root failure and rot. After a failed experiment, we found it appropriate to give the underwatered 150 ml of water, the control 200 ml of water and the overwatered 250 ml of water. We can conclude our hypothesis was supported (p-value .00000967). We found the plants grew larger with more water. The overwatered plants on average grew 3.1 inches taller than the under watered set. We believe this experiment better if to give the control set the amount of water we gave the overwatered set 250 ml.
16. George, Brett, Luke Sample. Biology, Sarah Cerra. Effects of Juice on Brassicas
To grow properly plants need sunlight, nutrients, water, and the right environmental conditions. We tested the Brassica plants’ ability to grow from different nutrient sources including water, grape juice, and specific ratios of the two. We predicted that the plants given just water would produce taller and broader appendages than the plants given water/juice and juice. In total 30 Brassica seeds were planted in groups of six. Each group was assigned a different water/grape juice ratio solution and observed over the period of four weeks. A trend of Brassica plant growth was increased as the ratio of water increased and the ratio of graph juice decreased. The hypothesis can be accepted because plants with water survived better than the plants with juice mixed in. Plants need a water source to photosynthesize properly and cannot use grape juice as a nutrition source.
17. Achenbach, Kirt, Lucas Johson. Biology, Sarah Cerra. Brassica Yields and Soil Amount
Forage Brassicas are high yielding, high quality, fast growing crops that grow best in partial shade and in firm, fertile, free draining soil. In the Gunnison Basin, soil is fragile. The Gunnison Basin is high in the Rockies and its soil tends to easily erode. In addition, the basin is a dry climate with many rocks. This experiment aims to show the Brassicas ability to grow in low soil areas by growing 2 separate treatments of Brassicas, one with low soil and one with a normal amount of soil. A total of 24 Brassicas were planted and grown in a green house where they received proper lighting and water. Results showed that there was little difference in the low soil yield and the normal soil yield (p-value x). Average height and the amount of blooming was relatively the same, displaying the Brassicas ability to grow in low soil amounts.
18. Hockett, Daren. Biology, Sarah Cerra. Growth Differences in Brassica Plants
Brassica Rapa is a flowering plant that thrives in a wide variety of places. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects that Gunnison tap water had on the plants compared to the effects of distilled water had. The procedure was set up with two separate trays for the different water types. In each tray there were six separate sections. Each section had two seeds in them along with the same amount of fertilizer. The seeds were all placed in the same amount of water and received the same amount of sunlight. The distilled water seemed to have a greater effect on the Brassica Rapa plant. The stems size and diameter were larger along with the leave sizes when watered with distilled water. Therefore, Brassica Rapa may grow better in distilled water than if they were placed in Gunnison Tap water. Further studies will need to be done to see if the distilled water is actually better for the plant or if genetic variation might have played a role in this experiment.
19. Mullen, John, Marissa Markus, James Wilkie, Andrew Baran. Biology, Sarah Cerra, Robin Bingham. Effects of Varied Fertilizers on Brassica Plants
Brassica rapa reacts well in fertile soil, effectively absorbing both nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers. Our experiment was designed to measure the quantitative variation in Brassica from the use of organic and synthetic fertilizers, as well as a control group without fertilizer. We expected an increase in both the number of leaves and height of the plants in which the organic fertilizer Age Old Grow, 12-6-6 was used. The plants in the organic group died, and the synthetic group had larger plant height mean (15.3 cm) than the control group (12.3), although this difference was not significant (p-value 0.18). We believe we possibly did not use the correct amount of organic fertilizer when the Brassica plants were first planted. The ultimate effectiveness of fertilizer on the growth of Brassica was still apparent.
20. Visscher, Teslyn, Jacob Kimi, and Adam Petty. Biology, Robin Bingham. Affect of Container Size on Brassica rapa Height and Stem Width
This study looked at the effect of pot size on two variables of growth, height and stem width, in Brassica rapa, a member of the mustard family. Three samples of plants were grown in three different pot sizes, (2, 3, and 4 inch). Environmental factors were kept constant. At the end of the three weeks the final height and stem width were recorded. The stem width ranged from being smallest in the two-inch samples and largest in the four-inch samples but height data was quite varied. The plants grown in the three-inch pots were on average over two inches smaller than those grown in the two and four inch pots. This supported an effect of pot size on stem width growth but no effect of pot size on height. Other studies done on similar species showed a direct effect of container size on plant height.
21. Clark, Cree, Ian Fischer, and Druvis Keuten. Biology, Robin Bingham. The Effects of Watering Frequency on the Height of Raphanus Sativus L
In this experiment the effects of watering frequency, as it relates to the growth (in height) of radish plants, was measured. We had certain sets of plants receiving precise amounts of tap water in a greenhouse. There were a total of four containers that each received a certain amount of water. One of the containers was watered every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, another container was watered every Monday and Friday, the third container was watered on Monday, and the last container was a control. All the containers were watered with the same amount of water, except the control which had constant saturation. We predicted that the frequency of watering would affect the height (in centimeters) of the radish plant. The results supported the hypothesis that over-watering, as well as under watering, stunted the overall growth of the plants.
22. Driscoll, DaiLynn, Taylor Goodhue, Bryan Hamacher, Kade Skoglund. Biology, Dr. Bingham. How light affects the height of Brassica rapa plants
Brassica rapa is a plant in the family of Brassicaceae. In our experiment, we tested the effects of different amountsof light on height. We used three seperate packs of six Brassica rapa plants each and placed each in one of three environments: all light, natural light, and no light. We measured the plants' height each week for three weeks monitoring and comparing the plants in each treatment. Over time, we found that the plant pack with the greatest average height was the pack in under "all light". The next greatest height was the "no light" environment and the "natural light" had the least growth. The plants in the natural light were shorter but looked healthier than those in "no light".
23. Keenan, Lindsey, Jason Holly. Biology, Sarah Cerra. The Effect of Light Concentration on Brassica
We examined the effect of sunlight and its concentration on the height of Brassica plants. Two populations of 12 plants each were either set under 2 fluorescent lamps or placed in natural sunlight for the duration of the plants growth. We predicted that the best growth would be facilitated in the natural sunlight verses the artificial light. In conclusion we found the Brassica plants in the more concentrated light of the lamps grew a significant amount more than the ones set in natural sunlight.
24. Johnson, Katie, Sage Smith, Troy Melcher, Brett Nash. Biology, Sarah Cerra. The Effects of Acid on Plant Life
Naturally occurring rain has a pH between 5 and 6, but humans indirectly add nitrogen and sulfur compounds into the atmosphere which increases the chances for acid rain. This experiment was to test the acidity of water on plant life. We hypothesize if Brassica rapa was treated with an acid of a pH less than 5, it would be more likely to have discolored leaves, shallower root systems, or less petals. It would be possible that the plant wouldn’t survive. Over the span of three weeks, the three groups of plants were treated with their respected pHs of 4.3, 5.1, or 6.0. Our results showed that the plants treated with a lower pH had discolored and unhealthy leaves and were all around less healthy then the plants treated with a pH of 6.0.
25. Wingate, Julie, Alex Degenstein, Amanda Turner, Lia Roderick. Biology, Sarah Cerra. Growth of Brassica rapa in soils from different elevations
Brassica rapa are in the mustard family, with a three week life cycle and prefer fertile soil with some acidity. This experiment was designed to determine if the Brassica plant would be able to survive in soils taken from three different topographic regions; Denver (elevation 5281ft), Gunnison (elevation 7683ft), and Crested Butte (elevation 9375ft). The hypothesis was in favor of the Denver soil, since it was closest to the Great Plains and predicted to have a better sand, silt, clay ratio. The different soils were prepared and the Brassica seeds were planted with and without fertilizer. The results of the experiment showed Denver had the tallest plants, yet not significant (ANOVA, p-value 0.05695) while Gunnison had the most plants that grew and Crested Butte had the least of all. Our hypothesis was for the Denver soil, but the results indicated Gunnison had the best production.
26. Tooke, Amber Charles Martinez, Megan Gurak, and Nick Moyer. Biology, Sarah Cerra. Effects of Competition on Seed Viability in a Brassica rapa Population
There is a seemingly apparent correlation between plant size, survival rate and population density. We hypothesize that the more seeds planted per area, the more the plants will compete for resources. We planted Brassica rapa in 4 containers divided into 6 sections. Each section was label with the numbers 1 through 6 of all four. The soil content, water, and light exposure was all kept constant. We planted a total of 84 Brassica rapa seeds in 4 containers at increments from one seed planted alone in a section to 6 seeds in one. . The seed viability was 95.2%. Since our hypothesis states that there will be a difference in seed viability we used results for a two-tailed p-test. P-value results for our initial seed viability data was .74 which dismisses our null hypothesis regarding early underground competition.
27. Fioretti, Angela. Biology, Dr. Cassandra Osborne. Low Dose Nonylphenol Exposure Adversely Affects Early Development of Xenopus laevis Embryos
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are ubiquitous subtances. These chemicals have adverse effects on many organisms. One of the most commonly observed results of in vivo EDC exposure is a deleterious effect on neural crest cell derivatives. We hypothesized that this compound was disrupting hormone-transcription pathways involved in neural crest cell differentiation and migration. Our research turned toward SDS-PAGE protein assays to probe for the overexpression of FoxD3 protein in treated embryos. This project performed electrophoretic assays to probe for overexpression of FoxD3, and quantified the FoxD3 expression found using densitometry analysis of exposed lysate as compared to control lysate.
28. Morrhouse,Janelle, Dustin, Meri, Josh. Biology, Dr. Bingham. Does Music Affect the Growth of Plants?
Abstract: Music is a mélange of notes, syncopation, rhythm, vibrations, and other factors that make it appealing to the human ear. But can music appeal to plants and encourage growth? This experiment studied the effect of music on the growth of Brassica rapa, specifically the height of the plants grown. The experimental group of 12 plants was exposed to thirty hours of music, and the control group of 12 plants was exposed to no music at all. Both sets were given the same amount of water, fertilizer, and light exposure. The heights of all plants were measured and the results were that the plants exposed to music averaged taller heights than plants not exposed to music.
29. Vidmar, Cayla , Chris McGraw, Lonie Morales. Biology, Dr. Bingham. A study of the affects of plant competition on Brassica rapa height and stem width
This experiment focused on the effects of competition on the height and width of Brassica rapa. We hypothesized that height and width would be reduced in plants that are in competition. The experiment used four six-pack planters, two of which had one seed per section, the other two had three seeds per section. They were placed under the same grow lights and watered the same amount to ensure exact conditions. The result supported our hypothesis with the plants in competition being shorter and smaller than those not in competition.
30. Gass, Eliza, Trista Hetland, Samantha Bruce, Danielle Lauridsen. Biology, Dr. Bingham. Rahanus sativus, Plants Size Compared to Bulb Size
Rahanus sativus is an easy to grow vegetable with an edible root. Its common name is radish. The purpose of the experiment was to examine the correlation between size of the radish plant and the size of the radish root. Twenty four radish seeds were planted about ¼ inch deep in individual planters. They were allowed to grow and were treated in the same conditions over a three week period. Then the areas of the radish plants as well as the weight of the radish roots were determined. After analyzing our results we concluded that there was not a significant correlation between radish plant leaf area and radish root size.
31. Hagan, Hagan. Chemistry, Jason Mullins. Benzylic Azidation of Homopthalic Acid Diester as a Synthetic Pathway to 2-carboxyphenylglycine
Preparation of 2-carboxylphenyl glycine was performed via Fischer esterification of homophthalic acid using methanol and sulfuric acid followed by benzylic azidation using tris azide. The azide group was reduced and protected using carbon on palladium and acetic anhydride under a hydrogen atmosphere. Acid hydrolysis was performed on the compound to remove the protecting group and hydrolyze the ester groups. Electrophilic aromatic ring substitution reactions were explored as a means to add substituents to the aromatic ring. These conformationally restricted glutamate analogs will be used as a tool to study excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs).
32. Reed, Michael. Computer Science, John Peterson. Computer Vision and Robotics
Western State's robotics team will demonstrate recent work in computer vision and robotics. This term we will demonstrate an adaptive color blob tracking system, navigation based on image flow, and the use of computer vision to animate 3-D characters based on pose recognition software.
33. Slater, Jacqueline. Economics, Dr. Sally Hays. Econometric Analysis of the Causation of Global Hunger
There are many dangers to world security; none may be more threatening than a global food shortage. National food shortages leave many people malnourished, and dying of starvation. This study provides and econometric analysis in the main causes of global hunger. Findings are based on the Global Hunger Index, which gives a calculated value of hunger to the eighty-four most starved nations. This study tests the relevance of speculated causes of global hunger, as discussed my various United Nation organizations. By using multivariate regression analysis I argue that at the ninety-nine percent significance level, demographic factors have more implication to global hunger than any other factors.
34. Cooper, Jordan. English, Christy Jespersen. Globalization and Music in Karen Tei Yamashita's "Tropic of Orange"
Scholarship notes that Karen Tei Yamashita’s novel, Tropic of Orange, is about globalization; however, no one has discussed the prevalence of music or the relationship of globalization to music in Yamashita’s novel. The novel, through the modern day musical genre of meshup and classical music, specifically the symphony, creates resistance to globalization and brings people together in various ways.
35. Ward, Linsey,Courtney Dalla, Daniel Hill, Jermey Graham. Environmental Studies, Brooke Moran. Sustainability at Curecanti National Recreation Area
We have been working closely with the National Park Service staff at Curecanti National Recreation Area for our Applied Environmental Studies capstone. The main focus of this project was to conduct an energy audit of the visitor center building at Elk Creek where we assessed; lighting, heating, air conditioning, building envelope and overall energy usage. The aim of the energy audit is to help the NPS staff focus on areas of major energy loss, as they are currently in the process of updating their building(s) with energy saving devices. Curecanti is also currently updating their recycling program. As such, we created and distributed a recycling survey aimed at finding out how to best create an effective recycling program. We also worked with the City of Gunnison, Waste Management and WSC to create a transportation plan for the recyclables at Curecanti. We have been working with the education staff to create interpretative material concerning the habitualization of bears in the Gunnison Valley.
36. Ahonen, Loren, Jordan Carr, John Lochhead, Brittany Perkins, Kyle Sullivan. Environmental Studies, Brooke Moran. Revisioning Headwaters
Through our Environmental Studies 400 project, ‘Revisioning Headwaters’, we hope to create a place-based, ecological literacy course available to all Western students. In revising the current Headwaters 200 curriculum we will shift the focus to an examination of citizenship in the Gunnison Valley. Our curriculum embodies three core principles: Examining the individual’s role in the greater community, Learning to value physical and intellectual conceptions of ‘place’ through the interactions of citizenship, and Understanding the interconnectedness of the biotic and social communities. Through these theoretical lenses students will study concepts of water, energy, food, anthropology/people, participation/use of the natural world, local government, transportation, and business. By focusing HWTRS200 on Freshman students, we hope to positively impact retention rates at Western State. Empowered by an understanding of ‘place‘, students are more likely to be participatory members of the Gunnison Basin community, all while increasing their understanding of the natural world around them.
37. Leishman, Nick. Environmental Studies, Dr. Heather Thiessen-Reily. The Dynamic Big Bend National Park and its River of Life
From the 1930’s to the present day a large section of southwest Texas has been set aside as a national park. The Rio Grande River is its southern border, and also a national border which make this park a rare one for the United States. Within the park there are three major regions; the river, the mountains, and the desert- what is there relationship to each other, and why is life so abundant in this 1,252 square mile section? The park is a tourist attraction due to its scenery, whitewater rafting and its wildlife, how important is this to the park? The big question is the health of the river. Does that affect everything in the park or is up river work and development not really causing any damage to the park’s environment. Big Bend is an amazing place, but is the fact that it’s an international border, river dependent park, or a fragile desert environment hurting this place.
38. Schaeg, Nicole,
Erin Peterson, Rob Hicks, Buck Crockett. Environmental Studies, Brooke Moran.
Environmental Education at the One Room School House
“Not one wasted moment!” is the motto of Jackie Burt’s One Room School House (Orsch) and this year, our ENVS 400 group was offered a unique opportunity to work with K-7 students in this shared learning environment that welcomes innovative teaching styles. Implementing environmental curriculum through experiential education, we applied a variety of our knowledge to construct eleven lesson plans that ranged from the Endangered Species Act to Aldo Leopold’s Land Ethic. Each lesson followed the Colorado State Standards and addressed students’ multiple intelligences. Over the course of this project, our goal at Orsch has been to address important environmental topics to young students. Doing so, has expanded students knowledge and encouraged them to become environmental stewards now and for the future.
39. Ball, Jillian. Environmental Studies, Brooke Moran. Campus Greenhouse Fundraiser and Awareness.
Abstract: In celebration of local food production in the Gunnison region, we are running an educational campaign and hosting a fundraiser for the future Campus Greenhouse. We have combined efforts with Beth Coop, director of the Farmer’s Market, involving the larger Gunnison community with Western State student’s efforts for local food economy. The educational campaign will include advertisements all over Gunnison and Crested Butte, a display at the Environmental Symposium, and a speaker at the dinner event. During the awareness and fundraiser event, we will serve all regionally produced and grown food, holding a drawing for a ticket-give-away, and showing the movie “No Impact Man” to promote local food production. Our sponsors include Monarch Mountain Ski Resort, Crested Butte Ski Resort, Gene Taylors Sporting Goods, Flying Burritos, The Gunnison Brewery, White Buffalo Organics, Mill Creek Beef, and The Luna Bakery.
40. Callender, Andrrew. Environmental Studies, Brooke Moran. Environmental Education for Gunnison Valley Energy Action Plan
The purpose of this project is to raise awareness about the Gunnison Valley Energy Action Plan (GVEAP). Working with the Office for Resource Efficiency (ORE), we developed a set of four energy based lesson plans for the fourth grade. One of the goals of the EAP committee is too work with the Curriculum Coordinator for the RE1-J School District to explore ways in which the youth of the communities can help educate their parents and the larger community while meeting their own education objectives. The lessons are an adaptation of the concept of “CROP” (calculate, reduce, offset, produce). Our lessons progress in the following order: Energy Basics, Understanding Carbon Footprints, Calculating Energy Use, and Reducing Energy Use. They include take home assignments and activities that are intended to not only raise students’ awareness of energy, but involve parents and widen the scope of energy education.
41. Roush, Devin. Environmental Studies, Dr. Heather Thiessen-Reily. Groundwater Bother: Trouble in "Paradise"
One of the most serious environmental challenges in the border region of the United States and Mexico is the significance of groundwater rights. In examining this topic a number of questions arise: Why is it important to control public and private water ways, more specifically who decides who gets the water supply in a border region? What if any historical governmental tensions have arisen, and what is the current situations between the nations of the United States and Mexico? Do the states control water supply and pollution issues or is it the federal governments? Furthermore, how and why has ground water pollution become more of a problem on one side of the border than on the other? An examination of these issues reveals a high degree of complexity related to the economic, political, environmental, and cross border challenges to control ground water pollution in the Southwest United States. Results: The return rate of the surveys and the results of the study are forthcoming.
42. McCarthy, Mike. Exercise and Sport Science, Scott Drum. Effects of Neuromuscular Therapy on the Respiratory Metaboreflex and Exercise Tolerance
INTRODUCTION: There is little to no information concerning the effects of Neuromuscular massage therapy on the respiratory metaboreflex and the resultant effect on exercise tolerance. PURPOSE: This quantitative experiment was conducted in order to gain an understanding of the mechanisms involved with the respiratory metaboreflex and how it influences exercise performance as well as to investigate the potential benefits of massage therapy in retarding the onset of the respiratory metaboreflex and extending time until fatigue in trained male and female athletes. METHODS: N=4 (2 male, 2 female) were studied. Subjects completed an informed consent prior to massage intervention and testing. Pre and Post intervention VO2max testing was performed 1 week prior to intervention and again 15minutes after intervention. Time until fatigue was also recorded. RESULTS: Pending. CONCLUSION: Pending.
43. Ronald, Iain, Mitchell Donnan. Exercise and Sport Science, Scott Drum. "Stress induced on a female cross country team"
The purpose of this study is to identify sources of stress experienced by an NCAA Division II women’s cross country team. Five female cross country runners aged 18-21 yrs were selected for this study. Subjects were interviewed through tape recorded open-ended interview sessions where they reflected upon past season experiences. Results of this qualitative analysis identified three key themes responsible for stressful experiences: a) relationship issues, b) pressures of being on the team, c) educational demands. Relationship issues were found to pose the most significant threat to declining performance. It is clear from results that team members overcome stress through the support of others thus become stronger and more unified as a team. From this experience results suggest that college athletes respond to stress in a unique way however working hard together has also shown to have a positive effect in overcoming stressful situations.
44. Dial, Andria. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Perceptions of Calories
Background: Imbalance of calories consumed and calories burned is a major contributing factor to obesity. Current literature shows that many individuals have inaccurate perceptions and estimations of calories. Purpose: The purpose of this non-experimental quantitative study will be to examine college age students’ perceptions of calories of selected foods and calories used during specific physical activities. Methods: 50 surveys will be handed out across a small college campus in a variety of classes. There will be 10 questions regarding selected foods and 5 regarding selected physical activities. Participants will be asked to estimate calories of the food and calories used during the physical activities. The data will be analyzed using a Pearson r correlation coefficient. Results: The return rate of the surveys and the results of the study are forthcoming.
45. Wilkerson, Jeff. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Confidence is Key
Previous literature has shown that there is a connection between a players’ confidence and their performance. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the importance of a player’s confidence level and how it can affect a player’s performance. 12 athletes from 4 different collegiate sports were asked two open ended questions pertaining to the most common confident factors (practice performance, coach relationship, teammate relationships, coaching scheme, and how the athlete feels about the competition.) After the questions were answered the results were coded by themes relating to confidence. Results and Conclusions: Are forthcoming.
46. Johnson, Darius. Exercise and Sport Science, Dr. Kinkema. Socialization Factors in Athletic Participation
Ever since the first considerable work in the area of socialization into sport conducted by McPherson and Grogg in 1969, it has been evident that the relationship between various socialization factors and progressive organized sports participation is complex. Fifty undergraduate students who attend a NCAA Division II college in the Rocky Mountains participated in a survey that was created to investigate socialization factors that played a role in their athletic experiences. Results: In Progress
47. Lovett, Heidi. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Effects of Heat during Exercise
The effect of heat during strenuous exercise affects many physiological systems within the human body. The purpose of this quantitative quasi-experimental study was to provide a greater understanding of the effects of heat during exercise. Six USCSA cross country skiers, three females and three males, used Bruce protocol four min stage to find their lactate threshold (LT) while wearing a wicking t-shirt and shorts at room temperature 21°C. Subjects then performed the same test with non-wicking clothing to simulate an increase in room temperature. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE), body oral temperature, LT, heart rate, Carbohydrate usage and gas exchange were recorded. Data was analyzed descriptively. Results are TBA.
48. Denham, Corrina. Exercise and Sport Science, Dr. Kinkema, Roger Drake. The Reciprocal Action
To investigate the practical methods of how people in our society receive and repay favors. The use of effective techniques is needed to achieve this goal and methods used in this process involve placing different people in similar situations, as well as placing similar people in different situations. One approach for this method is to observe how people will react to a valid favor or a false favor. Another, is to observe how people feel when they are to give something away with no expectation of a return, and how an individual feels when something has been taken away from them. Written in a scholarly fashion, the two articles interpreted are very interesting and deserve further examination.
49. Brittney Hoots. Exercise and Sport Science, Dr. Kinkema, R. Motivational Orientation in Youth Track Athletes
There are several different aspects that affect youth athletes to be motivated to participate in sport. In this study motivational orientations of 22 middle school track athletes ages 12-14 were investigated. This was done with a non-invasive questionaire with questions regarding what types of things or situations motivated the athletes to participate in Track and Field. It was found that in this particular age group the athletes were more extrinsically motivated, they participate in track to hang out with their teammates, or because of the awards they receive at the meets. Also both male and female athletes said that they participate for the personal satisfaction of winning an event in a meet. The female group had higher scores on questions except the question asking if their team needed them. It is apparent that at this age, athletes are participating in sports for recognition from their parents, peers and coaches, and are motivated extrinsically.
50. Lopez, Elena. Exercise and Sport Science, Dr. Kinkema. What's Your Method?: Cleaning and Maintaining Exercise Facilities
The National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) and the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) (industry leaders) have suggestions for cleaning and maintaining exercise facilities. However, there is no governing body that has a set of regulations for the cleaning and maintaining of exercise facilities. This paper uses research to find out what methods are actually used at different types of exercise facilities compared to the suggestions made by NSCA and ACSM. Results from this research were obtained through interviews with exercise facility managers. These results show that exercise facilities are cleaned at a higher level than suggested from NSCA and ACSM though they are maintained at a lower level than suggested. For these results, the interviewer was able to make suggestion for each facility and share these suggestions with facility managers.
51. Knox, Franklin. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan, Ashwin Patel, Scott Drum. The Psychological Effects of Physical Trauma on Athletes
Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study is to determine the psychological impact of being injured on athletes. Methods: I will be evaluating five subjects, four men and 1 women, with different athletic backgrounds including football, volleyball, mixed martial arts and rugby. The subjects degree of injury will vary from minor to career ending. To determine the psychological effects of injury open ended interviews will be done and transcribed to written form. The interviews wi;; be analyzed and coded for themes of psychological stress related to injury. Results: Will be forthcoming. Conclusion: Will be forthcoming
52. Rhoades, Tom. Exercise and Sport Science.Christina Buchanan, Scott Drum. Cancer and Exercise
Background: Research has shown that physical activity can aid cancer recovery. Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to determine the impact of exercise on cancer. Methods: Case study involving one female community member who is a cancer survivor. Participant is involved in daily activity, including walking 7 days per week (dpw), biking 4-5 dpw, and cross-country skiing 3 dpw. Subject had first and last chemotherapy treatment in October 2008 and January 2009, respectively. Participant continued to exercise daily throughout treatment. Researchers examined: heart rate (HR), time to fatigue (TtF), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2), using the Bruce protocol maximal treadmill test to compare with pre-test data. Data was analyzed descriptively. Results: Researchers found an increase in TtF and VO2maximum, while RPE decreased. Conclusion: These findings suggest regular exercise training can benefit survivors of cancer by reducing RPE and increasing TtF and VO2maximum.
53. Boughton,Woodson. Exercise and Sport Science, Christina Buchanan. A Look at the Contributing Factors to Competitive Athletes Dropout from Sport
In today’s competitive athletic world it takes a great deal of motivation and determination to succeed and progress. The purpose of this qualitative study will be to examine the factors that contribute to a competitive athlete’s dropout from sport. Surveys will be submitted to 50 college students. The survey consisted of 50% close-ended and 50% open-ended questions. Data will be analyzed descriptively and coded qualitatively for themes. Literary review will be used to determine the four core variables of sport dropout (Staleness/Burnout, Athlete & Coach Relationship, Athlete & Team Relationship, and the Athlete & Parent Relationship), while the surveys were used as a tool to determine the validity of these variables as well as to unveil other contributing variables to sport dropout. Research data is in the process of being collected and analyzed.
54. Dorzweiler, Nathan. Exercise and Sport Science, Christina Buchanan. Does the Shake WeightTM Do What it Says it Does?
The Shake WeightTM(SWTM) is a dumbbell with absorbing shocks at each end of it that bounce when shaken. It claims to tone a person’s arms in only 6 minutes/day. The purpose of this quantitative quasi-experimental study was to determine if the SWTM truly does what it claims to do. Three females and one male were put through a workout with the SWTM or w/free weights (FW) for 6 weeks, 3 days/week. Percent body fat was measured and a photograph was taken before the study and every two weeks during the study. There was one female and one male in the SWTM group and two females in the FW group. The data was analyzed descriptively. Results and conclusions are forthcoming.
55. Auten, Alissa. Exercise and Sport Science, Christina Buchanan. Is there a relationship between physical activity and academic performance as well as behavior in the Classroom?
Research has shown a positive correlation between physical activity and classroom performance. The purpose of this non-experimental quantitative study is to determine if there is a relationship between physical activity and academic performance as well as behavior in the classroom. Methods: The subjects chosen for this study were elementary school students who were evaluated by their teachers through a survey. Twelve surveys were filled out by the teachers. The data was then collected and analyzed descriptively and statistically using a Pearson’s r correlation coefficient. Results: The results for this study are forthcoming.
56. Ryan, Jonathan. Exercise and Sport Science, Dr. Kinkema. Obesity: The Socioeconomic Implications
The purpose of this non-experimental, comparative analysis was to address the social and economic impacts of the rise in obesity in the United States. This research is comprised of data and relevant literature that show the rise in obesity from 1985 to 2009 along with the rise in the health care costs linked to obesity. Data was collected from various organizations, researchers, and economists through database searches on PUBMED, EBSCOhost and Brookings, and direct email contact with representatives from the World Health Organization. Results and conclusions are still to be determined.
57. Osborne, Greg. Exercise and Sport Science, Dr. Kinkema. Mental Imagery Use Among Amateur Adult Male Golfers
The purpose of this study was to see when amateur adult golfers use mental imagery on the golf course and if they felt it enhanced their performance. There is a lot of research about mental imagery and putting performance, which fueled the idea for this study. A five question survey was designed to assess the extent to which amateur male golfers use mental imagery. The survey was administered both in-person and via email. Results TBD and Discussion TBD.
58. Bakka, Paul. Exercise and Sport Science, Dr. Kinkema, Anna Swisher. Vertical Jump Effects on Athletic Performance
Purpose: Investigate relationships between SP, LJP, CR, and VJP of track and field athletes. Methods: Twenty male, fourteen female Division II track and field athletes performed countermovement and static jumps (loads of 0 kg and 20 kg). Additionally, 200m SP and LJP was taken from competition marks within two weeks of testing; a CR of athleticism for each participant was also collected. Results: Comparison of the best three male long jumpers to the worst three male long jumpers revealed that better long jumpers performed better in all vertical jumping conditions. There were moderate to strong correlations between coach rank and all four jumping conditions for the female athletes. Correlations ranged from r = -0.57 to -0.64, p<0.05. Conclusions: Consistent with previous research, VJP may be a good indicator of SP and LJP. Assessing VJP in track athletes may help coaches in talent identification as well as monitoring training progress.
59. Lynch, Conor. Exercise and Sport Science, Dr. Kinkema, Alen Smith. Basic Physiology for Alpine Ski Racing
Flexibility, body composition, and aerobic endurance are factors that affect athletic performance. Research on flexibility, body composition, and aerobic endurance has been done on elite level athletes and can be used to compare athletes of different sports and abilities. The purpose of this study was to look at the physical and physiological tests done on World Cup level ski racers in an attempt to see what physical and physiological advantages may exist in elite level ski racers. Testing on young, male athletes (ages 12-13) from Crested Butte Mountain Sports Team is then presented in order to compare their physical and physiological traits to those of World Cup ski racers. The CBMST athletes were tested on maximal oxygen uptake, body composition, and flexibility because these are the most commonly researched traits in World Cup ski racers. The results from the research comparison can be used to help determine future exercise protocols for young ski racers.
60. Fishman, Joel. Exercise and Sport Science, Dr. Kinkema, Alen Smith. Effects of Multiple Carbohydrate Solution on Endurance Cycling Performance at Lactate Threshold
Different carbohydrate solutions have different effects on performance. Three carbohydrate solutions and a placebo were tested in order to find any performance enhancing effects. Many studies have tested the effects of glucose, fructose or both carbohydrates combined to show performance enhancement before, during and after exercise. However, no studies have been performed on performance enhancement of Acli-Mate and Enduro-Mate. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance effects of supplementing with Acli-Mate, G-Mate, Enduro-Mate and a placebo during extended cycling in a lab setting. One professional male cyclist was tested on a cycle ergometer for 120 minutes at 70% of VO2max followed by a time trial (TT) to fatigue at Lactate Threshold (LT). Subject was tested in the following order (Acli-Mate, Placebo, G-Mate, and Enduro-Mate). Results: TBD
61. Knopf, Clifton. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. The Nigerian Oil Crisis
One can speculate that for most Americans, contact with Nigeria generally comes via an email notifying them they are someone’s beneficiary or if they provide their banking information they will be handsomely rewarded. However, fewer Americans are likely aware of an ongoing conflict over oil and the environment in the Nigerian Delta. Rebel groups in the Delta are fighting with the Nigerian government over resource based wealth sharing. The situation is not entirely a case of the ‘haves’ versus the ‘have-nots’ but rooted in deeper issues. The role of ethnic violence, post-colonial impact, the effects of globalization in Africa and the role of oil as a destabilizing factor in undermining Nigeria’s democracy all play a part in the conflict. The question arises as to whether this conflict is an internal dispute among Nigerians or if there are outside players involved including foreign-based oil companies and foreign governments.
62. Davis, Danielle. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Conflict in Angola
After independence in November 1975, Angola faced a devastating civil war which lasted several decades and claimed millions of lives and refugees. Following negotiations held in Portugal, itself under severe social and political turmoil and uncertainty due to the April 1974 revolution, Angola's three main guerrilla groups agreed to establish a transitional government in January 1975. Within two months, however, the FNLA, MPLA and UNITA were fighting each other and the country was well on its way to being divided into zones controlled by rival armed political groups. The superpowers were quickly drawn into the conflict, which became a heated point for the Cold War. The United States, Portugal, Brazil and South Africa supported the FNLA and UNITA. The Soviet Union and Cuba supported the MPLA.
63. McConnell, Eric. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. How the Hooves Have Trampled: A Historical Evaluation of Grazing in the Southwest
Early boarder ranching operation, historically, tended to have minimal impact on the region’s ecosystem. However, with westward expansion in the U.S. and the introduction of large scale ranching operation north and south of the boarder, the regions fragile ecosystem was threatened. As grazing increased, environmental and economic challenges have fallowed, resulting in desertification, private verses public land use, and technological impacts. A critical event in this process was the Taylor Grazing act of 1934 which attempted to stabilize grazing policy. A critical short coming of the act was that it failed to take into consideration the verity of ecosystems in which grazing occurs.
64. Peterson, Erin. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Endangered Species of the Borderlands
A rich biodiversity of plants and animals is necessary to the health and integrity of our environment. However, the industrial and security development in the borderlands between U.S. and Mexico have had a negative impact on the plant and animal species that inhabit the area. By researching what the government and private organizations have done in the past and what they are doing today to protect and preserve species, many effective solutions can be reached. Local conservations groups, like the Malpai Borderlands Group, have had the greatest impact reversing the negative affects from the past and curbing the potential problems species could face in the future. Although the problem of endangered species in the borderlands is a major issue that cannot be easily solved, the current efforts in place provide hope for the future.
65. Mitchell, Mark. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Anglo Zulu War 1879
The 1879 Anglo Zulu war, also known as the Boer War, was the culmination of many events which origin was from 1488 AD when Bartholomew Diaz was trying to reach the India Trade by ship. The Dutch would colonize South Africa and establish Cape Town. While a Dutch Colony, many people’s from Europe migrated to South Africa. Many of the new arrivals were French Huguenots who were fleeing persecution from the Catholic Church. The blending of the French Huguenots, the Dutch, and a few German sailors resulted in an unintended colony which became autonomous from Europe. These people were known as the Boers. The Boers would be pushed north into uncharted territory because of the British ban on Slavery, which was essential to Boer survival and way of life. Zululand was a loose confederation of tribes which were controlled by chieftains. The Boers fleeing now British controlled South Africa made a treaty with a Zulu King to settle on a new partial of land. The Boers would offend the Zulu King and the result would be an embittered hatred between the Boers and the Zulu’s. The war would end with the Annexation of Zululand by the British in 1887 AD.
66. Eriksen, Weston. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Anglo-Zulu War of 1879
During the 19th century it was said that the sun never set on the British Empire. The extensive distance between the home government and her majesty's colonial extension lead to a policy of giving British High Commissioners the ability to work at their own discretion. Sir Henry Bartle Frere was sent to South Africa with the intentions of bringing together the Dutch Boers under British rule by challenging the Zulu nation. Bartle Frere's hope of becoming the first British governor over the South African dominion was dashed with Britain's defeat by the Zulu, the worst defeat Britain had suffered by any indigenous tribe. Britain's Home government put the blame at Bartle Frere's feet and blamed him for taking actions in his own self interests. The home government made Frere the scapegoat for the embarrassment and then proceeded to become much more aggressive against the Zulu, literally subduing the Zulu nation with a second invasion. Was Frere really to be blamed for the first defeat? The Zulu nation were a problem in unifying South Africa under British rule and from Britain's perspective they needed to be dealt with.
67. Eriksen, Weston. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Rio Grande Water Tensions
The Rio Grande is a river that has had politically complicated past and now has become even greater source of conflict between the United States and Mexican interest as environmental concerns have been added to political concerns. This river starts in the San Juan mountains in southern Colorado and makes its way into Mexico and then swings back to act as the “natural” borderline between Texas and Mexico. As a result, the Rio Grande is a important source of water to both nations, water quantity and quality issues are of increasing importance and there is a growing concern about what is put into the water on both sides of the border. In 1944 the U.S signed water treaties with Mexico designating how much water the U.S would receive from the Rio Grande when the river swung back towards Texas and how much water Mexico would get from the Colorado river. The Treaties didn't deal with the quality. This paper explores the political and environmental implications of the degradation of the Rio Grande River.
68. Davis, Danielle. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Ranching in the Borderlands
The creosote-dominated landscape that characterizes the southern Arizona/New Mexico border region is perceived as “natural”, by visitors and residents alike, but it is largely the result of overgrazing during the livestock boom of the late nineteenth-century. After reading landscape descriptions from the boundary surveys of the 1850s and other scholarly material which study the physical indicators of overgrazing, one will see the landscape around them in a whole new light as a product of history, as much as of nature. Ranchers, overgrazing, and the frustrating fire suppression policies that contributed to the spread of woody shrubs and loss of forage grasses made severe degradation possible.
69. Parr, Tim. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. The Rise of Fundamentalist Islam in Africa and its Resulting Conflicts
The rise of Fundamentalist Islam across Africa has given rise to many local African conflicts. Many African countries including Algeria, Egypt, Mali, Senegal, Tunisia, Niger, and Chad have instituted Islam as the state religion meanwhile Sudan, Nigeria, Somalia, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania, and Western Sahara have instituted Shari’a as the national law. With the increased fundamentalist Islamic presence and enforced Shari’a among non-Islamic African communities, conflicts have developed and grown as religious groups face conflicts with different state territories. The conflicts caused by Shari’a, especially evident in Sudan and Nigeria, are primordial conflicts and a direct result of the religious limitations and constraints that Islamic fundamentalists enforce through Shari’a law and activist or terrorist activities. The rejection of freedom of religion and learned intolerance incites these conflicts further offering no end in sight.
70. Perkins, Brittany. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Our American Slums: Colonias Along the U.S.-Mexico Border
Colonias are low-income settlements along the border between the United States and Mexico. These towns often lack adequate infrastructure such as potable water and waste treatment systems, making them a human health hazard as well as an environmental hazard. These areas are often inhabited by employees of maquiladoras; factories owned by U.S. companies that are located just over the border in Mexico. Through delving into a history of the colonias, the factors and forces that led to their existence can be studied. Other important aspects to a study of the colonias will be a background of their characteristics and also the environmental degradation that they create. Although life in colonias is difficult today, the future is not bleak for all of these towns. Aid is being given to help clean up these areas and provide the citizens with basic services.
71. Hunt, Jeff. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. The Rise and Fall of Mengistu Haile Mariam: Ethiopia's Journey into the Age of Independence in Africa
Ethiopia’s path into the modern age and through the decades of African independence is a unique one. Colonial European rule was largely avoided and strong native rulers like Menelik II and Haile Selassie enjoyed long and successful reigns. This makes the rise of Mengistu Haile Mariam especially questionable. I explore the combination of events and historical precedents that enable a man like Mengistu to succeed Emperor Selassie, focusing on Selassie’s use of Big Man politics, the changing political culture in Africa at the time and analyzing Mengistu’s motivations: nationalism, socialism and lust for power. I will also investigate the factors that lead to Mengistu’s downfall and the absentia trial conducted in his exile, paying specific attention to the Red Terror and political genocide perpetrated against the people of Ethiopia.
72. Dorr, Brandon, Anne Mitsch, and Adrienne Stratton. History, Dr. Wallace Lewis. World War II Posters
World War II propaganda, as represented in these war posters, was a form of government communication that was created to encourage patriotic behavior among Americans and produce an emotional response. These posters emphasized the role of the individual citizen as it pertained to the war effort and also attempted to dehumanize the enemy.
73. Welty, Allison. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Aftermath of the Rwandan Genocide
This research paper will examine the genocide that took place in Rwanda in 1994. It will give a brief history of previous conflicts between the Tutsi and Hutu tribes and the events leading up to the genocide. It will briefly look into the history of Tutsi rule in the country after gaining independence from Belgium and focus on the remaining hostility between the two tribes. The main scope of the research paper will then be looking into the aftermath of the genocide and the current state of the country and the two tribes. There will be a focus on the displaced Hutu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and how the conflict has carried over into other neighboring countries, such as Burundi and Uganda. The paper will examine whether or not the displaced Hutu are organizing in these countries and whether or not there is a current threat of retaliation.
74. Brooks, Nina, Nick Edwards. History, Dr. Wallace Lewis. WPA State Guides from the New Deal
The Works Progress Administration, a public works project implemented during the New Deal era of the 1930s, allowed for unemployed writers to work in public service for the government. Of all the WPA's programs, the Federal Writers Project was the most successful; its state guides program grew to be the heart and soul of FWP success. The FWP not only fulfilled the WPA's initial goal of employing writers, but went above and beyond these goals by informing people of facts previously unknown. As the only profit-producing institution of the Works Progress Administration, the Federal Writers Project grew to be the most successful of all its programs.
75. Benson, Troy, Samuel Johnson, and Andrew Strosnider History, Dr. Wallace Lewis. Federal Theatre Project of the New Deal
The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was a New Deal program that was established to build a national theater troop of unemployed actors that would perform in many major cities as well as travel rural areas producing plays. The long term purpose of the project was to establish theater as an integral part of communities and so would outlive the program itself. Actors involved in the FTP could also be hired out to smaller production crews in other areas. The founder of the FTP was Hallie Flanagan, a theater professor who stated that the productions done by the organization would be “free, adult, and uncensored.” During its four years of existence the FTP hired over 50,000 people and performed thousands of productions. Unfortunately, the FTP lost its funding due to leftist commentary in some of the productions before it could have a lasting effect in many communities.
76. Santangelo, Robert. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Water Issues Facing the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands
The United States Mexican Borderlands face water issues every day and it is a struggle to get through each day for the people living along this border both on the Mexican and United States side. This paper will explore how population growth in this region has caused water shortages and water quality degradation over time. It will also examine the effects which have been made to address these issues and possible solutions that are needed to resolve the border’s water crisis. The water problems facing the borderlands are not just a present problem but have evolved over the years and will need direct attention if these issues are to be prevented.
77. Roland, Jacob. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Rwanda Conflict
This paper discusses all the major factors resulting in the
mass slaughtering of over 800,000 people during the Rwanda Genocide in 1994.
This particular paper covers all actions prior to the Belgian Colonial Era.
Questions will be answered about what caused and aided the strong ethnic and
sociopolitical tensions between Hutus and Tutsis and how did Belgium and other
Western nations contribute to the chaos of those two cultures. The role of
environmental factors like drought will also be discussed. The final question
discussed is how did the world allow this to happen?
78. Callahan, Max. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Groundwater in the Borderlands
Most disputes over water between the United States and Mexico have been primarily concerned with the capture and distribution of surface waters. The Borderlands groundwater issue is a relatively new development in US-Mexican relations. Only as recently as post World War II was the nature of the area’s subsurface hydrology fully discovered and understood. Previously unexamined quality and distribution issues; movement of subsurface flows; and aquifers were studied and mapped to a certain degree. Unfortunately, this only worked to compound the already fractured US-Mexican relations in regards to water resources “shared” by the two nations. This work seeks to examine how the groundwater resources of the Borderlands region that were relatively unknown/untapped before 1973 have become the prominent issue furthering the conflict over water between the United States and Mexico.
79. Stuller, Walter, Sean Fredinburg, and Scott Murtaugh. History, Dr. Wallace Lewis. Women in World War II
Women participating in World War Two are traditionally thought of as industrial workers brought in to replace the men who went to fight. However, some women chose to participate more directly. Women air force service pilots, or WASPS, were civilian women employed to fly for the United States Army Air Corps. The OSS and British SOE employed other women who played key roles in the war effort by serving as spies. These women showed that a woman could do far more for her country in a time of war.
80. Daniels, Tyler, Heather Davis, and Jordan Owens. History, Dr. Wallace Lewis. Farm Security Administration and the Dust Bowl
The Dust Bowl was a series of severe dust storms that caused major agricultural damage to the prairieland in the 1930s. These storms were a result of drought, as well as poor farming methods. The storms caused so much devastation on farms that many families were forced to pack up their belongings and head west looking for work. These families stayed in camps along their journey that had been set up by people in the same situations. As a part of the New Deal, the Farm Security Administration (FSA) was established to combat rural poverty and assist the farmers that had been affected by the storms. The FSA provided the many families that had exhausted all their financial means with loans to purchase new equipment and livestock. Although the FSA played a major role in the survival of rural communities, its lasting legacy today may mostly be the photographs it produced.
81. Golan, Tal. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Life Line to Border Line- exploring the transformation of the Rio Grande from a natural ecosystem into a political border
This paper explores the historic events that lead to the reshaping of the main function of the Rio Grande from past to present; from life line which allows societies to prosper along its banks, to a political border serving as a guard of geographic and political interests. In the past, societies have learned to respectfully use the meandering, Great River to sustain their people for generations. At the present, the length of Great River serves mainly as a political border, a diminishing water source for farmers and an imaginary line that disrupts the natural functions of the river ecosystem. This research studies the environmental and social implications of transforming a wholesome ecosystem which provides for an entire community of species, into a controlled boundary which provides for very few species.
82. Brooks, Nina. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Sierra Leone Civil War
They sing diamonds are a girl’s best friend but in Sierra Leone in the 1990’s they brought nothing but misery. From 1991 to 2002 Sierra Leone experienced a bloody civil war, over control the of the nations diamonds. Whoever controlled the diamonds controlled the power. I will use a Marxist based conflict theory to understand how the Sierra Leone conflict was resource based. This paper focuses primarily on three aspects of the illegal diamond trade which fueled the conflict: the role of Sierra Leone neighbor, Liberia, in the conflict, the role of child soldiers and finally how the international regulation of diamonds helped bring an end to the civil war.
83. Palmer, Robin. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Water Scarcity and the Colorado River
The overuse of the Colorado River is a significant problem because many people, as well as countless numbers of species and a variety of ecosystems, in the Southwest and in Mexico depend on the Colorado River. This project seeks to investigate several aspects of water scarcity on the Colorado River. The first aspect explores the short term and long term effects of water scarcity on both the ecosystems that are touched by the Colorado River as well as the indigenous populations that depend on it. The next issue related to water scarcity includes how current water policy could be amended to reduce water scarcity on the Colorado River.
84. Shaw, Dana. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Environmental Consequences Resulting From
Ciudad Juarez and its U.S. sister city El Paso are the two oldest metropolitan areas that have developed along the U.S. Mexican border. Population growth and urbanization have characterized these cities, especially after World War II. Early years in the economic development of Juarez created the beginnings of commercial and industrial development that would eventually transform not only the city, but the ecology of the surrounding ecosystems, watersheds, and quality of air. This process has intensified with the rise of the maquiladora industry. The connections between industrial and population growth have created major environmental concerns including air and water quality issues, as well as hazardous waste disposal issues. This poster examines the connection between historic population growth and industrialization and resulting environmental consequences of this rapid growth in the borderlands.
85. Myers, Dax. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Phoenix's Dependency on Rocky Mountain Rivers
This paper examines Phoenix’s rapid growth based on its dependence of Rocky Mountain Rivers. While the city does not get all of its water from Rocky Mountain Rivers, it is such substantial amount that the human habitat of Phoenix can be looked at as artificial, meaning (on the current growth scale), the area of Phoenix should not be as densely inhabited as it is, based on the resources that it needs to function. As a result of the rapid growth (after 1950- and the arrival of central air conditioning), the mass development destroyed the surrounding desert and the influx of population growth caused the city to require more water than what the Indian Bend Wash Watershed could support. The result of this was Phoenix turning to other sources of energy and water resources. Glen Canyon Dam now provides the hydroelectric power needed to support the cities growing air conditioning needs. In the 1980s, the Central Arizona Project planned to divert water from the Colorado in order to satisfy the cities growing needs. The implications of this expansion are tremendous, and have already led to the destruction of many delicate ecosystems.
86. Knopf, Clifton. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Rescaping the Landscape of a Desert Community
This paper explores the concept of xeriscaping in the Tucson area and the historical processes that have led to changes in urban landscaping. Arguably the greatest negative changes to the environment in the area were caused after World War II by the landscaping mentality of incoming settlers many of whom had little or no regard for or understanding of the natural landscape of the desert. The impact of the suburban lifestyle of nuclear families and retirees to the desert created an environmental crisis. In the 1970s the concept of xeriscaping became popular as a way of mitigating the crisis and by the end of the 20th century, Tucson began implementing landscaping laws.
87. Foster, Sarah. Honors, Heather Theissen-Riley. Sandstone Summer
For the spring 2010 City as Text course we are spending a total of six days studyin and exploring Santa Fe, New Mexico. I was inspired by the rugged terrain, rich color, and depth of culture of the city and opted to express my experience through a creative writing piece. I decided to use the form of the ficitonal short story paying special attention to character development, regional influence and poetic language. I seek to capture the emotions and feelings Santa Fe evoked in me and to share them via a literary avenue.
88. Honors, Heather Theissen-Riley. The Value of a WSC Liberal Arts and Sciences Education
This project analyzed the qualitative and quantitative characteristics that contribute to the value of the Liberal Arts and Sciences education provided by Western State College. The project's goal was to try to ssess the value of a Western State College Liberal Arts and Sciences education. In this study we looked into demographics, economics and the geographic opportunities available to students in Gunnison. We conducted interviews and surveys with professors, alumni and current students to determine what makes Western a desirable atmosphere that fosters both personal and financial success. We investigated some perceptions and realities of a Liberal Arts and Sciences education, statistical data regarding college life, and the impacts of extracurricular opportunities to fully comprehend how these factors contribute to the cultivation of general intellectual abilities rather than technical or professional skills. This analysis is applicable to former, current and perspective students in order for them to understand the potential of and utilize their Western State College education.
89. Hove, Jesse. Honors. Heather Theissen-Riley. ELL Methods and Teaching
I am undertaking a field based independent Honors project with the Gunnison Literacy Program working with advanced ELL students. This project allowed me to gain practical teaching experience with ELL students, develop my Spanish skills and to apply techniques learned in my classes in a real world environment. I explored various methods of ELL instruction which included reading, discussion and presentation approaches with special emphasis on writing strategies. Through this project, I have become familiar with the challenges that can arise from both the learning and teaching experience in providing ELL education and have gained a greater awareness of how to meet those teaching challenges.
90. Rea, Mandy. Honors, Molly Mugglestone. Human Rights Implications for India: Women Entering the Work Force
Women in India face extreme discrimination; sexual harassment is particularly common. Traditional gender roles and the increasing number of women entering the workforce are exacerbating this problem. Indian women generally have little control over their earnings and employment status. Poor girls and women are often sent to work to support the family, even though it is considered culturally inappropriate or wrong. Wealthy or educated women are often prevented from working as a show of the family’s morality and financial stability. It is critical for India to uphold the human rights guaranteed by the Indian Constitution, ICESCR, ICCPR, CRC and CEDAW. The Indian culture must be adapted to alleviate the societal burden on working women and to protect them from rampant and often institutionalized violence, harassment and discrimination. This paper aims to examine the issues faced by working omen in India and to outline recommendations for preventing these human rights violations.
91. Finney, Conor. Mathematics, Dr. Robert Cohen. An Excellent Journey through Non-Commutativity
Have you ever gotten up in the morning and put your shoes on before your socks, then wondered why this is different from putting your socks on first? From a young age in math we are taught that certain operations “commute”, while others do not. Everyone knows that 5 + 4 is the same as 4 + 5 yet 4 - 5 is not 5 - 4. Exploring the world of non-commutativity leads us to many different mathematical settings. We will journey through subtraction, division, cross products, composition of functions, and matrix multiplication, finally arriving at conjecture attempting to capture non-commutative patterns.
92. Krenz, Joshua. Mathematics, Jeremy Muskat. Math is blowing in the wind
Abstract: What it wind? Wind is a driving force in most of the world’s weather. Wind drives the show dumping last Friday. Wind drives the hurricanes which destroy the Gulf Coast. But most important of all, wind supplies power for developing countries, wind supplies power for homes, and wind supplies power for major cities. In 1919 Albert Betz discovered an elegant expression for the maximum power obtainable from the wind. In this talk we will discuss how to model the wind flow and derive the equations which describe how a wind turbine takes the force of the wind and turn it into a useful power source. We will discuss the overall wind using a simple wind tube, which we will call a streamtube as our basic model. Interestingly, this result can be obtained from elementary calculus.
93. Ankoviak, Chris, Kindra Luberski, Jeremy Johndrow, Jacob Tucker. Outdoor Leadership and Resort Mangement, Brooke Moran. Conserving Energy: By saving Money Through Sustianable Practices
This project was done to show how implementing sustainable practices can save money and the environment. Our goal was to isolate the number of rooms cut off from all electricity, thus eliminating their phantom load at the Grand Lodge, in Crested Butte. Comparing occupancy, electricity bills and evaluating the effect of disconnecting 50 vacant rooms for 30 days, we determined the cost associated with operating each room. Cost effective and sustainable practices were also introduced for the lobby, business offices, pool, restaurant and gift shop areas. Based on the level of involvement from hotel employees, tactics were suggested to directly affect the amount of electricity and money saved. We found that on average the Grand Lodge could potentially save 10% to 15% annually on electricity bills. The findings of this project will be implemented throughout Crested Butte Mountain Resort in an effort to become more sustainable.
94. Schifferer, Zach, Blaine Johnson, Bem Grinnell. Outdoor Leadership and Resort Mangement, Brooke Moran. Getting Sudsy: Strategic and Sustainable Planning for the Future
Our purpose for this project was to take the recently purchased Southern Cross Laundromat, and compile all the existing financial documentation through data entries into excel formats. Financial tracking systems, spreadsheets, and graphical representations were developed for management to track and record the business’ performance. Our challenge was to formulate a strategic plan for the Laundromat which included marketing, expansion, and environmental sustainability strategies. The marketing strategy required research of market trends and customer demographics. For the expansion strategy we looked into the feasibility of acquiring a second Laundromat location. Upon request from the owner, a ten year plan for the environmental sustainability and energy usage of the Laundromat was constructed. Lastly, we developed a system for the owners to track how their facilities will be utilized and where their profits and expenses will be allocated.
95. Murray, Chelsea, Tim Jones. Outdoor Leadership and Resort Mangement, Brooke Moran. Western State College's High Altitude Performance Lab Welcomes Adaptive Sports Center
Adaptive Sports Center (ASC) of Mount Crested Butte is a nationally known non-profit organization that provides recreational services for people with disabilities; Western State College's High Altitude Performance Lab (HAP Lab) is a sport performance and exercise physiology facility equipped to assess fitness parameters and help athletes reach their full potential in sport and health & wellness. The three-fold purpose of this service-learning project entailed 1. Helping the HAP Lab be capable of testing any experience level and type (road or off-road) of hand-cyclist on VO2 max with gas analysis, lactate threshold, muscular fitness and other performance testing on the large treadmill; 2. Creating two brochures for ASC: one about the HAP Lab and its services and another about the effects of high altitude sickness and how to prevent it; and 3. Gaining experience and insight into working with people with disabilities and the non-profits that serve them.
96. Wadas, Adam, Corey Dusin, Jerad David. Outdoor Leadership and Resort Mangement, Brooke Moran. BLM Capstone Project
A group of students from the OLRM capstone course are gaining knowledge of land management agencies by volunteering their time with the BLM. Through their volunteer work with the Gunnison BLM field office they are providing services for land management operations. They have assisted wildlife biologists in the construction of blue bird houses and have recommended changes for the Gunnison field office’s webpage. Students provided guidance in properly operating the Gunnison’s Field office permitting database and have summarized the interpretive panels which are located on the Silver Thread Byway. Research has been conducted for an interpretive display in Lake City that will contain information about the vast amount of species that call the Gunnison basin home.
97. Wilder, Eli. Outdoor Leadership and Resort Mangement, Heather Thiessen-Reily. The Colorado River and its Troubles
This paper explores the historical changes that have occurred within the Colorado River drainages, specifically located downstream of a few select dams. Areas inquiries include the changes in water temperatures and clarity and the effect this has had on the specific ecosystem. As a result of changing ecosystems, the dams have also had social and economic impact. From the creation of jobs and drinking water to the destruction of native fish and beautiful vistas, the dams’ impacts have forever changed our lives in the west. This report will touch on a few of these impacts and how they developed through out history.
98. Case, Leah. Psychology, Roger Drake. Significance of Outdoor Education on Youth's Overall Health and Self esteem
The basis of my research was focused on how adolescents being involved in some form of outdoor education can positively impact their overall health and self esteem. Most youth who collaborate with those of their own age, and are active, have a high sense of self, as well as dramatically reduce their likelihood of having serious health problems later in life.
100. Otis, Jourdan. Psychology.“Practicality of the Working Memory to the Brain”
The prefrontal cortex is involved in a great deal of work because of all of the information that it has to receive. It processes incoming information that can be involved with either visual or auditory senses. It helps in the assistance of carrying out specific actions and processes of the long-term memory. There are certain requirements for any physiological system for memory to hold information after the original stimulus is gone. With this said it is interesting to note that the stimulus is not always present, which was found apparent through an experiment done by Funahashi. Through the researching of articles on this topic, there was information retrieved that supports the idea that prefrontal cortex is essential for holding information for brief periods of time. Collaboration is also a significant variable in what the memory retains.
101. Coots, Timon. Psychology, Roger Drake. Effective Uses of Visual Imagery in Problem Solving
This presentation addresses ways which we can use visual imagery as a means for solving problems. It also attends to the ongoing debate of whether visual imagery employs mechanisms involved in language (propositional) or those involved in perception (spatial). The articles contained within this presentation attend to this debate and offer evidence that supports the theory that visual imagery is related to the mechanisms involved in perception. Visual imagery can be a powerful tool for study as well as other applications. These applications include, but are not limited to: stress reduction; memory improvement; relaxation and; skill development.
102. Happel, Michael. Psychology, Roger Drake. The Reciprocity Rule and Tactical Retreat
Social psychologist Robert Cialdini proposes that humans have a strong will to execute reciprocity. Cialdini’s “reciprocity rule” posits that all humans, in every society throughout history and across the globe, feel obligated to perform a reciprocal favor to another individual or entity if that first entity gives or concedes something first. Cialdini notes that an individual can use the reciprocity rule to manipulate others to perform a favor or task, or to avoid being manipulated, using a method he calls “tactical retreat.” Research found two experiments that examined the efficacy of the reciprocity rule first by testing willingness to reciprocate sharing and taking, and another surveying the obligation felt by employees to their employers. Both experiments suggested that performing favors for others was a successful way to sway opinion, as well as to have favors reciprocated in the future, supporting Cialdini’s purported rules.
103. Givan, Emily. Psychology, Roger Drake. Recommendations for Increasing Spelling Accuracy and Lexical Priming
This presentation explores the ways in which humans perceive and understand words, focusing on the word frequency effect and context. It also examines two recent articles on the subject: 1.) "Associative and repetition priming with the repeated masked prime technique: No priming found", and 2.) "Phonological skill, lexical decision and letter report performance in good and poor adult spellers". The first article investigates whether performance in a lexical decision task correlates with a person’s overall ability to spell words. The second article explores how visual masking effects repetition and associative priming in a lexical decision task. This information can be applied by students and educators to increase spelling accuracy and lexical priming.
104. Happel, Michael.Psychology, Roger Drake.The Reciprocity Rule and Tactical Retreat
Social psychologist Robert Cialdini proposes that humans have a strong will to execute reciprocity. Cialdini’s “reciprocity rule” posits that all humans, in every society throughout history and across the globe, feel obligated to perform a reciprocal favor to another individual or entity if that first entity gives or concedes something first. Cialdini notes that an individual can use the reciprocity rule to manipulate others to perform a favor or task, or to avoid being manipulated, using a method he calls “tactical retreat.” Research found two experiments that examined the efficacy of the reciprocity rule first by testing willingness to reciprocate sharing and taking, and another surveying the obligation felt by employees to their employers. Both experiments suggested that performing favors for others was a successful way to sway opinion, as well as to have favors reciprocated in the future, supporting Cialdini’s purported rules.
105. Niesman, Stephanie. Psychology, Roger Drake. Procedural Memory to Aid Patients with Episodic Memory Damage
Procedural memory is a type of implicit memory. Implicit memory involves the use of a previous experience in correlation to an improved performance. Implicit memory includes the completion of a certain task without consciously remembering how we are aware to complete the task. Procedural memory can be more specifically defined as a skill which exists without a memory of learning the skill. An experiment using patients with short term memory loss which impaired them from storing new long term memories involved teaching the patients a new task through procedural learning. The results show that the patients were able to perform the task quicker each time proving that the patients could learn new tasks through the use of procedural memory. Another study shows that sleep consolidation can be used to enhance the effectiveness of procedural memory in brain damage patients. Patients with short term memory loss may not be able to remember what they did last but, they are still able to learn new tasks. It is possible for patients suffering from episodic memory damage to learn new tasks, or form procedural memories, by procedural learning after their injuries.
106. Kicklighter, Alison. Psychology, Coykendall, Thiessen. Public Service: TAT
Through the use of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), personality traits of controls and those who work or volunteer in emergency services were contrasted. The TAT (Murray and Morgan, 1943) is a widely used projective personality test of black and white images that attempt to uncover unique personality traits of individuals. Test subjects tell stories based on ambiguous images. For the purpose of this study, seven story cards were chosen and presented in a set order to all test subjects. The experimental group consisted of twelve subjects involved in public service. The control group consisted of twelve subjects with similar demographics. Results are expected to yield stories with a higher frequency of heroic attitudes and a propensity to aid others within the experimental group as compared to the control group.
107. Frankmore, Samantha, Bethany Waller. Science, Sarah cerra. Effects of Acidic and Basic Water on Brassica Growth
If the pH level is more balanced the seeds will grow most successfully as they are in healthiest conditions. We observe overall health within different pH level conditions. Brassica rapa seeds were planted two per pod in a six pack pod to be three treatments watered with acidic (pH 5) basic (pH9) and neutral water (pH 7). Heights of each plant were recorded. Plants in neutral water thrived, growing the tallest, while ones in acidic water did fairly well, while the plants watered in basic water died after two weeks. Our hypothesis, the plants grown in neutral water would grow the best was supported (P-Value of 5.73 of bases to neutral).Effects of various types of water contamination are relevant ecologically and economically.